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SREE Spring 2017 Conference Recap

Several Empirical Education team members attended the annual SREE conference in Washington, DC from March 4th - 5th. This year’s conference theme, “Expanding the Toolkit: Maximizing Relevance, Effectiveness and Rigor in Education Research,” included a variety of sessions focused on partnerships between researchers and practitioners, classroom instruction, education policy, social and emotional learning, education and life cycle transitions, and research methods. Andrew Jaciw, Chief Scientist at Empirical Education, chaired a session about Advances in Quasi-Experimental Design. Jaciw also presented a poster on developing a “systems check” for efficacy studies under development. For more information on this diagnostic approach to evaluation, watch this Facebook Live video of Andrew’s discussion of the topic.

Other highlights of the conference included Sean Reardon’s keynote address highlighting uses of “big data” in creating context and generating hypotheses in education research. Based on data from the Stanford Education Data Archive (SEDA), Sean shared several striking patterns of variation in achievement and achievement gaps among districts across the country, as well as correlations between achievement gaps and socioeconomic status. Sean challenged the audience to consider how to expand this work and use this kind of “big data” to address critical questions about inequality in academic performance and education attainment. The day prior to the lecture, our CEO, Denis Newman, attended a workshop lead by Sean and colleagues that provided a detailed overview of the SEDA data and how it can be used in education research. The psychometric work to generate equivalent scores for every district in the country, the basis for his findings, was impressive and we look forward to their solving the daunting problem of extending the database to encompass individual schools.

2017-03-24

Presentation at the 2016 Learning Forward Annual Conference

Learning Forward announced that our proposal was accepted for the 2016 annual conference being held in Vancouver, Canada this year. Teacher Evaluation Specialist K.C. MacQueen will join Fort Wayne Community Schools’ (FWCS) Todd Cummings and Learning Forward’s Kay Psencik in presenting “Principals Collaborating to Deepen Understanding of High-Quality Instruction.” They will highlight how FWCS is engaged in a process to ensure equitable evaluation of teacher effectiveness using Observation Engine™. If you or someone you know is attending the annual conference in December 2016, here are the details of the presentation.

  • Day/time: Tuesday, December 6, 2016 from 10AM-Noon
  • Session: I 15
2016-08-02

SREE Spring 2016 Conference Presentations

We are excited to be presenting two topics at the annual Spring Conference of The Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness (SREE) next week. Our first presentation addresses the problem of using multiple pieces of evidence to support decisions. Our second presentation compares the context of an RCT with schools implementing the same program without those constraints. If you’re at SREE, we hope to run into you, either at one of these presentations (details below) or at one of yours.

Friday, March 4, 2016 from 3:30 - 5PM
Roosevelt (“TR”) - Ritz-Carlton Hotel, Ballroom Level

6E. Evaluating Educational Policies and Programs
Evidence-Based Decision-Making and Continuous Improvement

Chair: Robin Wisniewski, RTI International

Does “What Works”, Work for Me?: Translating Causal Impact Findings from Multiple RCTs of a Program to Support Decision-Making
Andrew P. Jaciw, Denis Newman, Val Lazarev, & Boya Ma, Empirical Education



Saturday, March 5, 2016 from 10AM - 12PM
Culpeper - Fairmont Hotel, Ballroom Level

Session 8F: Evaluating Educational Policies and Programs & International Perspectives on Educational Effectiveness
The Challenge of Scale: Evidence from Charters, Vouchers, and i3

Chair: Ash Vasudeva, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

Comparing a Program Implemented under the Constraints of an RCT and in the Wild
Denis Newman, Valeriy Lazarev, & Jenna Zacamy, Empirical Education

2016-02-26

Learning Forward Presentation Highlights Fort Wayne Partnership

This past December, Teacher Evaluation Specialist K.C. MacQueen presented at the annual Learning Forward conference. MacQueen presented alongside Fort Wayne Community Schools’ (FWCS) Todd Cummings and Laura Cain, and Learning Forward’s Kay Psencik. The presentation titled, “Implementing Inter-Rater Reliability in a Learning System,” highlighted how FWCS has used Calibration & Certification Engine (CCE), School Improvement Network’s branded version of Observation Engine™, to ensure equitable evaluation of teacher effectiveness. FWCS detailed the process they used to engage instructional leaders in developing a common rubric vocabulary around their existing teacher observation rubric. While an uncommon step and one that definitely added to the implementation timeline, FWCS prioritized this collaboration and found that it increased both inter-rater reliability and buy-in to the process with the ultimate goal of assisting teachers in improving classroom instruction to result in greater student growth.

2016-01-19

Empirical Education Visits Chicago

We had such a great time in windy Chicago last month for the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA). All of the presentations we attended were thought-provoking, and our presentations also seemed to be well-received.

The highlight of our trip, as always, was our annual reception. This year was our first time entertaining friends in a presidential suite, and the one at the Fairmont did not disappoint. Thanks to everyone who came and enjoyed an HLM, our signature cocktail. (The Hendricks Lemontwist Martini of course, what else would it stand for?)

Many of the pictures taken at our AERA reception can be found on facebook, but here is a sneak peek of some of our favorites.

2015-05-21

Conference Season 2015

Empirical researchers are traveling all over the country this conference season. Come meet our researchers as we discuss our work at the following events. If you plan to attend any of these, please get in touch so we can schedule a time to speak with you, or come by to see us at our presentations.

AEFP

We are pleased to announce that we will have our fifth appearance at the 40th annual conference of the Association for Education Finance and Policy (AEFP). Join us in the afternoon on Friday, February 27th at the Marriott Wardman Park, Washington DC as Empirical’s Senior Research Scientist Valeriy Lazarev and CEO Denis Newman present on Methods of Teacher Evaluation in Concurrent Session 7. Denis will also be the acting discussant and chair on Friday morning at 8am in Session 4.07 titled Preparation/Certification and Evaluation of Leaders/Teachers.

SREE

Attendees of this spring’s Society for Research on Effectiveness (SREE) Conference, held in Washington, DC March 5-7, will have the opportunity to discuss instructional strategies and programs to improve mathematics with Empirical Education’s Chief Scientist Andrew P. Jaciw. The presentation, Assessing Impacts of Math in Focus, a ‘Singapore Math’ Program for American Schools, will take place on Friday, March 6 at 1pm in the Park Hyatt Hotel, Ballroom Level Gallery 3.

ASCD

This year’s 70th annual conference for ASCD will take place in Houston, TX on March 21-23. We invite you to schedule a meeting with CEO Denis Newman while he’s there.

AERA

We will again be presenting at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA). Join the Empirical Education team in Chicago, Illinois from April 16-20, 2015. Our presentations will cover research under the Division H (Research, Evaluation, and Assessment in Schools) Section 2 symposium: Program Evaluation in Schools.

  1. Formative Evaluation on the Process of Scaling Up Reading Apprenticeship Authors: Jenna Lynn Zacamy, Megan Toby, Andrew P. Jaciw, and Denis Newman
  2. The Evaluation of Internet-based Reading Apprenticeship Improving Science Education (iRAISE) Authors: Megan Toby, Jenna Lynn Zacamy, Andrew P. Jaciw, and Denis Newman

We look forward to seeing you at our sessions to discuss our research. As soon as we have the schedule for these presentations, we will post them here. As has become tradition, we plan to host yet another of our popular AERA receptions. Details about the reception will follow in the months to come.

2015-02-26

Getting Different Results from the Same Program in Different Contexts

The spring 2014 conference of the Society for Research in Educational Effectiveness (SREE) gave us much food for thought concerning the role of replication of experimental results in social science research. If two research teams get the same result from experiments on the same program, that gives us confidence that the original result was not a fluke or somehow biased.

But in his keynote, John Ioannidis of Stanford showed that even in medical research, where the context can be more tightly controlled, replication very often fails—researchers get different results. The original finding may have been biased, for example, through the tendency to suppress null findings where no positive effect was found and over-report large, but potentially spurious results. Replication of a result over the long run helps us to get past the biases. Though not as glamorous as discovery, replication is fundamental to science, and educational science is no exception.

In the course of the conference, I was reminded that the challenge to conducting replication work is, in a sense, compounded in social science research. “Effect heterogeneity”—finding different results in different contexts—is common for many legitimate reasons. For instance, experimental controls seldom get placebos. They receive the program already in place, often referred to as “business as usual,” and this can vary across experiments of the same intervention and contribute to different results. Also, experiments of the same program carried out in different contexts are likely to be adapted given demands or affordances of the situation, and flexible implementation may lead to different results. The challenge is to disentangle differences in effects that give insight into how programs are adapted in response to conditions, from bias in results that John Ioannidis considered. In other fields (e.g., the “hard sciences”), less context dependency and more-robust effects may make it easier to diagnose when variation in findings is illegitimate. In education, this may be more challenging and reminds me why educational research is in many ways the ‘hardest science’ of all, as David Berliner has emphasized in the past.

Once separated from distortions of bias and properly differentiated from the usual kind of “noise” or random error, differences in effects can actually be leveraged to better understand how and for whom programs work. Building systematic differences in conditions into our research designs can be revealing. Such efforts should, however, be considered with the role of replication in mind—an approach to research that purposively builds in heterogeneity, in a sense, seeks to find where impacts don’t replicate, but for good reason. Non-reproducibility in this case is not haphazard, it is purposive.

What are some approaches to leveraging and understanding effect heterogeneity? We envision randomized trials where heterogeneity is built into the design by comparing different versions of a program or implementing in diverse settings across which program effects are hypothesized to vary. A planning phase of an RCT would allow discussions with experts and stakeholders about potential drivers of heterogeneity. Pertinent questions to address during this period include: what are the attributes of participants and settings across which we expect effects to vary and why? Under which conditions and how do we expect program implementation to change? Hypothesizing which factors will moderate effects before the experiment is conducted would add credibility to results if they corroborate the theory. A thoughtful approach of this sort can be contrasted with the usual approach whereby differential effects of program are explored as afterthoughts, with the results carrying little weight.

Building in conditions for understanding effect heterogeneity will have implications for experimental design. Increasing variation in outcomes affects statistical power and the sensitivity of designs to detect effects. We will need a better understanding of the parameters affecting precision of estimates. At Empirical, we have started using results from several of our experiments to explore parameters affecting sensitivity of tests for detecting differential impact. For example, we have been documenting the variation across schools in differences in performance depending on student characteristics such as individual SES, gender, and LEP status. This variation determines how precisely we are able to estimate the average difference between student subgroups in the impact of a program.

Some may feel that introducing heterogeneity to better understand conditions for observing program effects is going down a slippery slope. Their thinking is that it is better to focus on program impacts averaged across the study population and to replicate those effects across conditions; and that building sources of variation into the design may lead to loose interpretations and loss of rigor in design and analysis. We appreciate the cautionary element of this position. However, we believe that a systematic study of how a program interacts with conditions can be done in a disciplined way without giving up the usual strategies for ensuring the validity of results.

We are excited about the possibility that education research is entering a period of disciplined scientific inquiry to better understand how differences in students, contexts, and programs interact, with the hope that the resulting work will lead to greater opportunity and better fit of program solutions to individuals.

2014-05-21

Factor Analysis Shows Facets of Teaching

The Empirical team has illustrated quantitatively what a lot of people have suspected. Basic classroom management, keeping things moving along, and the sense that the teacher is in control are most closely associated with achievement gains. We used teacher evaluation data collected by the Measures of Effective Teaching project to develop a three-factor model and found that only one factor was associated with VAM scores. Two other factors—one associated with constructivist pedagogy and the other with positive attitudes—were unrelated to short-term student outcomes. Val Lazarev and Denis Newman presented this work at the Association for Education Finance and Policy Annual Conference on March 13, 2014. And on May 7, Denis Newman and Kristen Koue conducted a workshop on the topic at the CCSSO’s SCEE Summit. The workshop emphasized the way that factors not directly associated with spring test scores can be very important in personnel decisions. The validation of these other factors may require connections to student achievements such as staying in school, getting into college, or pursuing a STEM career in years after the teacher’s direct contact.

2014-05-09

Empirical Education Presents Initial Results from i3 Validation Grant Evaluation

Our director of research operations, Jenna Zacamy, joined Cheri Fancsali from IMPAQ International and Cyndy Greenleaf from the Strategic Literacy Initiative (SLI) at WestEd at the Literacy Research Association (LRA) conference in Dallas, TX on December 4. Together, they conducted a symposium, which was the first formal presentation of findings from the Investing in Innovation (i3) Validation grant, Reading Apprenticeship Improving Secondary Education (RAISE). WestEd won the grant in 2010 with Empirical Education and IMPAQ serving as the evaluators. There are two ongoing evaluations: the first includes a randomized control trial (RCT) of over 40 schools in California and Pennsylvania investigating the impact of Reading Apprenticeship on teacher instructional practices and student achievement; the second is a formative evaluation spanning four states and 150+ schools investigating how the school systems build capacity to implement and disseminate Reading Apprenticeship and sustain these efforts. The symposium’s discussant, P. David Pearson (UC Berkeley), provided praise of the design and effort of both studies stating that he has “never seen such thoughtful and extensive evaluations.” Preliminary findings from the RCT show that Reading Apprenticeship teachers provide students more opportunities to practice metacognitive strategies and foster and support more student collaboration opportunities. Findings from the second year of the formative evaluation suggest high levels of buy-in and commitment from both school administrators and teachers, but also identify competing initiatives and priorities as a primary challenge to sustainability. Initial findings of our five-year, multi-state study of RAISE are promising, but reflect the real-world complexity of scaling up and evaluating literacy initiatives across several contexts. Final results from both studies will be available in 2015.

View the information presented at LRA here and here.

2013-12-19

Empirical Presents about Aspire Public School’s t3 System at AEA 2013

Empirical Education presented at the annual conference of the American Evaluation Association (AEA) in Washington, DC. Our newest research manager, Kristen Koue, along with our chief scientist, Andrew Jaciw reflected on striking the right balance between conducting a rigorous randomized control trial that meets i3 grant parameters, while also conducting an implementation evaluation that provides useful formative feedback to the Aspire population.

2013-10-15
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