blog posts and news stories

The Evaluation of CREATE Continues

Empirical Education began conducting the evaluation of Collaboration and Reflection to Enhance Atlanta Teacher Effectiveness (CREATE) in 2015 under a subcontract with Atlanta Neighborhood Charter Schools (ANCS) as part of their Investing in Innovation (i3) Development grant. Since our last CREATE update, we’ve extended this work through the Supporting Effective Educator Development (SEED) Grant Program. The SEED grant provides continued funding for three more cohorts of participants and expands the research to include experienced educators (those not in the CREATE residency program) in CREATE schools. The grant was awarded to Georgia State University and includes partnerships with ANCS, Empirical Education (as the external evaluator), and local schools and districts.

Similar to the i3 work, we’re following a treatment and comparison group over the course of the three-year CREATE residency program and looking at impacts on teacher effectiveness, teacher retention, and student achievement. With the SEED project, we will also be able to follow Cohort 3 and 4 for an additional 1-2 years following residency. Surveys will measure perceived levels of social capital, school climate and community, collaboration, resilience, and mindfulness, in addition to other topics. Recruitment for Cohort 4 began this past spring and continued through the summer, resulting in approximately 70 new participants.

One of the goals of the expanded CREATE programming is to support the effectiveness and social capital of experienced educators in CREATE schools. Any experienced educator in a CREATE school who attends CREATE professional learning activities will be invited to participate in the research study. Surveys will measure similar topics to those measured in the quasi-experiment and we conduct individual interviews with a sample of participants to gain an in-depth understanding of the participant experience.

We have completed our first year of experienced educator research and continue to recruit participants, on an ongoing basis, into the second year of the study. We currently have 88 participants and counting.

2018-10-03

For Quasi-experiments on the Efficacy of Edtech Products, it is a Good Idea to Use Usage Data to Identify Who the Users Are

With edtech products, the usage data allows for precise measures of exposure and whether critical elements of the product were implemented. Providers often specify an amount of exposure or the kind of usage that is required to make a difference. Furthermore, educators often want to know whether the program has an effect when implemented as intended. Researchers can readily use data generated by the product (usage metrics) to identify compliant users, or to measure the kind and amount of implementation.

Since researchers generally track product implementation and statistical methods allow for adjustments for implementation differences, it is possible to estimate the impact on successful implementers, or technically, on a subset of study participants who were compliant with treatment. It is, however, very important that the criteria researchers use in setting a threshold be grounded in a model of how the program works. This will, for example, point to critical components that can be referred to in specifying compliance. Without a clear rationale for the threshold set in advance, the researcher may appear to be “fishing” for the amount of usage that produces an effect.

Some researchers reject comparison studies in which identification of the treatment group occurs after the product implementation has begun. This is based in part on the concern that the subset of users who comply with the suggested amount of usage will get more exposure to the program. More exposure will result in a larger effect. This assumes of course, that the product is effective, otherwise the students and teachers will have been wasting their time and will likely perform worse than the comparison group.

There is also the concern that the “compliers” may differ from the non-compliers (and non-users) in some characteristic that isn’t measured. And that even after controlling for measurable variables (prior achievement, ethnicity, English proficiency, etc.), there could be a personal characteristic that results in an otherwise ineffective program becoming effective for them. We reject this concern and take the position that a product’s effectiveness can be strengthened or weakened by many factors. A researcher conducting any matched comparison study can never be certain that there isn’t an unmeasured variable that is biasing it. (That’s why the What Works Clearinghouse only accepts Quasi-Experiments “with reservations.”) However, we believe that as long as the QE controls for the major factors that are known to affect outcomes, the study can meet the Every Student Succeeds Act requirement that the researcher “controls for selection bias.”

With those caveats, we believe that a QE, which identifies users by their compliance to a pre-specified level of usage, is a good design. Studies that look at the measurable variables that modify the effectiveness of a product can not only be useful for school in answering their question, “is the product likely to work in my school?” but points the developer and product marketer to ways the product can be improved.

2018-07-27

Presenting at AERA 2018

We will again be presenting at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA). Join the Empirical Education team in New York City from April 13-17, 2018.

Research presentations will include the following.

For Quasi-Experiments on EdTech Products, What Counts as Being Treated?
Authors: Val Lazarev, Denis Newman, & Malvika Bhagwat
In Roundtable Session: Examining the Impact of Accountability Systems on Both Teachers and Students
Friday, April 13 - 2:15 to 3:45pm
New York Marriott Marquis, Fifth Floor, Westside Ballroom Salon 3

Abstract: Edtech products are becoming increasingly prevalent in K-12 schools and the needs of schools to evaluate their value for students calls for a program of rigorous research, at least at the level 2 of the ESSA standards for evidence. This paper draws on our experience conducting a large scale quasi-experiment in California schools. The nature of the product’s wide-ranging intensity of implementation presented a challenge in identifying schools that had used the product adequately enough to be considered part of the treatment group.


Planning Impact Evaluations Over the Long Term: The Art of Anticipating and Adapting
Authors: Andrew P Jaciw & Thanh Thi Nguyen
In Session: The Challenges and Successes of Conducting Large-Scale Educational Research
Saturday, April 14 - 2:15 to 3:45pm
Sheraton New York Times Square, Second Floor, Central Park East Room

Abstract: Perspective. It is good practice to identify core research questions and important elements of study designs a-priori, to prevent post-hoc “fishing” exercises and reduce the role of drawing false-positive conclusions [16,19]. However, programs in education, and evaluations of them, evolve [6] making it difficult to follow a charted course. For example, in the lifetime of a program and its evaluation, new curricular content or evidence standards for evaluations may be introduced and thus drive changes in program implementation and evaluation.

Objectives. This work presents three cases from program impact evaluations conducted through the Department of Education. In each case, unanticipated results or changes in study context had significant consequences for program recipients, developers and evaluators. We discuss responses, either enacted or envisioned, for addressing these challenges. The work is intended to serve as a practical guide for researchers and evaluators who encounter similar issues.

Methods/Data Sources/Results. The first case concerns the problem of outcome measures keeping pace with evolving content standards. For example, in assessing impacts of science programs, program developers and evaluators are challenged to find assessments that align with Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). Existing NGSS-aligned assessments are largely untested or in development, resulting in the evaluator having to find, adapt or develop instruments with strong reliability, and construct and face validity – ones that will be accepted by independent review and not considered over-aligned to the interventions. We describe a hands-on approach to working with a state testing agency to develop forms to assess impacts on science generally, and on constructs more-specifically aligned to the program evaluated. The second case concerns the problem of reprioritizing research questions mid-study. As noted above, researchers often identify primary (confirmatory) research questions at the outset of a study. Such questions are held to high evidence standards, and are differentiated from exploratory questions, which often originate after examining the data, and must be replicated to be considered reliable [16]. However, sometimes, exploratory analyses produce unanticipated results that may be highly consequential. The evaluator must grapple with the dilemma of whether to re-prioritize the result, or attempt to proceed with replication. We discuss this issue with reference to an RCT in which the dilemma arose. The third addresses the problem of designing and implementing a study that meets one set of evidence standards, when the results will be reviewed according to a later version of those standards. A practical question is what to do when this happens and consequently the study falls under a lower tier of the new evidence standard. With reference to an actual case, we consider several response options, including assessing the consequence of this reclassification for future funding of the program, and augmenting the research design to satisfy the new standards of evidence.

Significance. Responding to demands of changing contexts, programs in the social sciences are moving targets. They demand a flexible but well-reasoned and justified approach to evaluation. This session provides practical examples and is intended to promote discussion for generating solutions to challenges of this kind.


Indicators of Successful Teacher Recruitment and Retention in Oklahoma Rural Schools
Authors: Val Lazarev, Megan Toby, Jenna Lynn Zacamy, Denis Newman, & Li Lin
In Session: Teacher Effectiveness, Retention, and Coaching
Saturday, April 14 - 4:05 to 6:05pm
New York Marriott Marquis, Fifth Floor, Booth

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with successful recruitment and retention of teachers in Oklahoma rural school districts, in order to highlight potential strategies to address Oklahoma’s teaching shortage. The study was designed to identify teacher-level, district-level, and community characteristics that predict which teachers are most likely to be successfully recruited and retained. A key finding is that for teachers in rural schools, total compensation and increased responsibilities in job assignment are positively associated with successful recruitment and retention. Evidence provided by this study can be used to inform incentive schemes to help retain certain groups of teachers and increase retention rates overall.


Teacher Evaluation Rubric Properties and Associations with School Characteristics: Evidence from the Texas Evaluation System
Authors: Val Lazarev, Thanh Thi Nguyen, Denis Newman, Jenna Lynn Zacamy, Li Lin
In Session: Teacher Evaluation Under the Microscope
Tuesday, April 17 - 12:25 to 1:55pm
New York Marriott Marquis, Seventh Floor, Astor Ballroom

Abstract: A 2009 seminal report, The Widget Effect, alerted the nation to the tendency of traditional teacher evaluation systems to treat teachers like widgets, undifferentiated in their level of effectiveness. Since then, a growing body of research, coupled with new federal initiatives, has catalyzed the reform of such systems. In 2014-15, Texas piloted its reformed evaluation system, collecting classroom observation rubric ratings from over 8000 teachers across 51 school districts. This study analyzed that large dataset and found that 26.5 percent, compared to 2 percent under previous measures, of teachers were rated below proficient. The study also found a promising indication of low bias in the rubric ratings stemming from school characteristics, given that they were minimally associated with observation ratings.

We look forward to seeing you at our sessions to discuss our research. We’re also co-hosting a cocktail reception with Division H! If you’d like an invite, let us know.

2018-03-06

Spring 2018 Conference Season is Taking Shape


We’ll be on the road again this spring.

SREE

Andrew Jaciw and Denis Newman will be in Washington DC for the annual spring conference of the The Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness (SREE), the premier conference on rigorous research. Andrew Jaciw will present his paper: Leveraging Fidelity Data to Making Sense of Impact Results: Informing Practice through Research. His presentation will be a part of Session 2I: Research Methods - Post-Random Assignment Models: Fidelity, Attrition, Mediation & More from 8-10am on Thursday, March 1.

SXSW EDU

In March, Denis Newman will be attending SXSW EDU Conference & Festival in Austin, TX and presenting on a panel along with Malvika Bhagwat, Jason Palmer, and Karen Billings titled Can Evidence Even Keep Up with EdTech? This will address how researchers and companies can produce evidence that products work—in time for educators and administrators to make a knowledgeable buying decision under accelerating timelines.

AERA

Empirical staff will be presenting in 4 different sessions at the annual conference of the American Educational Research Association (AERA) in NYC in April, all under Division H (Research, Evaluation, and Assessment in Schools).

  1. For Quasi-experiments on Edtech Products, What Counts as Being Treated?
  2. Teacher evaluation rubric properties and associations with school characteristics: Evidence from the Texas evaluation system
  3. Indicators of Successful Teacher Recruitment and Retention in Oklahoma Rural Schools
  4. The Challenges and Successes of Conducting Large-scale Educational Research

In addition to these presentations, we are planning another of our celebrated receptions in NYC so stay tuned for details.

ISTE

A panel on our Research Guidelines has been accepted at this major convention, considered the epicenter of edtech with thousands of users and 100s of companies, held this year in Chicago from June 24–27.

2017-12-18

Determining the Impact of CREATE on Math and ELA Achievement

Empirical Education is conducting the evaluation of Collaboration and Reflection to Enhance Atlanta Teacher Effectiveness (CREATE) under an Investing in Innovation (i3) development grant awarded in 2014. The CREATE evaluation takes place in schools throughout the state of Georgia.

Approximately 40 residents from the Georgia State University (GSU) College of Education (COE) are participating in the CREATE teacher residency program. Using a quasi-experimental design, outcomes for these teachers and their students will be compared to those from a matched comparison group of close to 100 teachers who simultaneously enrolled in GSU COE but did not participate in CREATE. Implementation for cohort 1 started in 2015, and cohort 2 started in 2016. Confirmatory outcomes will be assessed in years 2 and 3 of both cohorts (2017 - 2019).

Confirmatory research questions we will be answering include:

What is the impact of one-year of exposure of students to a novice teacher in their second year of teacher residency in the CREATE program, compared to the Business as Usual GSU teacher credential program, on mathematics and ELA achievement of students in grades 4-8, as measured by the Georgia Milestones Assessment System?

What is the impact of CREATE on the quality of instructional strategies used by teachers, as measured by the Teacher Assessment of Performance Standards (TAPS) scores, at the end of the third year of residency, relative to the business as usual condition?

What is the impact of CREATE on the quality of the learning environment created by teachers, as measured by Teacher Assessment of Performance Standards (TAPS) scores, at the end of the third year of residency, relative to the business as usual condition?

Exploratory research questions will address additional teacher-level outcomes including retention, effectiveness, satisfaction, collaboration, and levels of stress in relationships with students and colleagues.

We plan to publish the results of this study in fall of 2019. Please check back to read the research summary and report.

2017-06-06

SREE Spring 2017 Conference Recap

Several Empirical Education team members attended the annual SREE conference in Washington, DC from March 4th - 5th. This year’s conference theme, “Expanding the Toolkit: Maximizing Relevance, Effectiveness and Rigor in Education Research,” included a variety of sessions focused on partnerships between researchers and practitioners, classroom instruction, education policy, social and emotional learning, education and life cycle transitions, and research methods. Andrew Jaciw, Chief Scientist at Empirical Education, chaired a session about Advances in Quasi-Experimental Design. Jaciw also presented a poster on developing a “systems check” for efficacy studies under development. For more information on this diagnostic approach to evaluation, watch this Facebook Live video of Andrew’s discussion of the topic.

Other highlights of the conference included Sean Reardon’s keynote address highlighting uses of “big data” in creating context and generating hypotheses in education research. Based on data from the Stanford Education Data Archive (SEDA), Sean shared several striking patterns of variation in achievement and achievement gaps among districts across the country, as well as correlations between achievement gaps and socioeconomic status. Sean challenged the audience to consider how to expand this work and use this kind of “big data” to address critical questions about inequality in academic performance and education attainment. The day prior to the lecture, our CEO, Denis Newman, attended a workshop lead by Sean and colleagues that provided a detailed overview of the SEDA data and how it can be used in education research. The psychometric work to generate equivalent scores for every district in the country, the basis for his findings, was impressive and we look forward to their solving the daunting problem of extending the database to encompass individual schools.

2017-03-24
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